Apache HTTP Server

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The Apache HTTP Server, commonly referred to as Apache (Template:Pron-en), is web server software notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web.<ref>Netcraft Market Share for Top Servers Across All Domains August 1995 - November 2009</ref> In 2009 it became the first web server software to surpass the 100 million web site milestone.<ref name="100millionsites">Template:Cite web</ref> Apache was the first viable alternative to the Netscape Communications Corporation web server (currently known as Oracle iPlanet Web Server), and has since evolved to rival other Unix-based web servers in terms of functionality and performance. The majority of web servers using Apache run a Unix-like operating system.Template:Citation needed

Apache is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under the auspices of the Apache Software Foundation. The application is available for a wide variety of operating systems, including Unix, GNU, FreeBSD, Linux, Solaris, Novell NetWare, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, OS/2, TPF, and eComStation. Released under the Apache License, Apache is characterized as open source software.

Since April 1996 Apache has been the most popular HTTP server software in use. Template:As of Apache served over 54.46% of all websites and over 66% of the million busiest.<ref name="netcraft">Template:Cite web.</ref>


History and name

The first version of the Apache web server software was created by Robert McCool, who was heavily involved with the National Center for Supercomputing Applications web server, known simply as NCSA HTTPd. When McCool left NCSA in mid-1994, the development of httpd stalled, leaving a variety of patches for improvements circulating through e-mails. These patches were provided by a number of other developers besides McCool: Brian Behlendorf, Roy Fielding, Rob Hartill, David Robinson, Cliff Skolnick, Randy Terbush, Robert S. Thau, Andrew Wilson, Eric Hagberg, Frank Peters and Nicolas Pioch, and they thus helped to form the original "Apache Group".

There have been two explanations of the project's name. According to the Apache Foundation, the name was chosen out of respect for the Native American tribe of Apache (Indé), well-known for their endurance and their skills in warfare.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> However, the original FAQ on the Apache Server project's website, from 1996 to 2001, claimed that "The result after combining [the NCSA httpd patches] was a patchy server.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref><ref>Template:Cite web</ref> The first explanation was supported at an Apache Conference<ref>Template:Cite mailing list</ref> and in an interview in 2000 by Brian Behlendorf, who said that the name connoted "Take no prisoners. Be kind of aggressive and kick some ass".<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> Behlendorf then contradicted this in a 2007 interview, stating that "The Apache server isn't named in honor of Geronimo's tribe" but that so many revisions were sent in that "the group called it 'a patchy Web server'".<ref>Template:Cite news</ref> Both explanations are probably appropriate.<ref>Template:Cite mailing list</ref>

Version 2 of the Apache server was a substantial re-write of much of the Apache 1.x code, with a strong focus on further modularization and the development of a portability layer, the Apache Portable Runtime. The Apache 2.x core has several major enhancements over Apache 1.x. These include UNIX threading, better support for non-Unix platforms (such as Microsoft Windows), a new Apache API, and IPv6 support.<ref> Template:Cite manual</ref> The first alpha release of Apache 2 was in March 2000, with the first general availability release on April 6, 2002.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

Version 2.2 introduced a more flexible authorization API. It also features improved cache modules and proxy modules.<ref>Template:Cite manual</ref>


Apache supports a variety of features, many implemented as compiled modules which extend the core functionality. These can range from server-side programming language support to authentication schemes. Some common language interfaces support Perl, Python, Tcl, and PHP. Popular authentication modules include mod_access, mod_auth, mod_digest, and mod_auth_digest, the successor to mod_digest. A sample of other features include SSL and TLS support (mod_ssl), a proxy module (mod_proxy), a URL rewriter (also known as a rewrite engine, implemented under mod_rewrite), custom log files (mod_log_config), and filtering support (mod_include and mod_ext_filter).

Popular compression methods on Apache include the external extension module, mod_gzip, implemented to help with reduction of the size (weight) of web pages served over HTTP. ModSecurity is an open source intrusion detection and prevention engine for web applications. Apache logs can be analyzed through a web browser using free scripts such as AWStats/W3Perl or Visitors.

Virtual hosting allows one Apache installation to serve many different actual websites. For example, one machine with one Apache installation could simultaneously serve www.example.com, www.test.com, test47.test-server.test.com, etc.

Apache features configurable error messages, DBMS-based authentication databases, and content negotiation. It is also supported by several graphical user interfaces (GUIs).


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Apache is primarily used to serve both static content and dynamic Web pages on the World Wide Web. Many web applications are designed expecting the environment and features that Apache provides.

Apache is redistributed as part of various proprietary software packages including the Oracle Database and the IBM WebSphere application server. Mac OS X integrates Apache as its built-in web server and as support for its WebObjects application server. It is also supported in some way by Borland in the Kylix and Delphi development tools. Apache is included with Novell NetWare 6.5, where it is the default web server. Apache is included with many Linux distributions.

Apache is used for many other tasks where content needs to be made available in a secure and reliable way. One example is sharing files from a personal computer over the Internet. A user who has Apache installed on their desktop can put arbitrary files in Apache's document root which can then be shared.

Programmers developing web applications often use a locally installed version of Apache in order to preview and test code as it is being developed.

Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) is the main competitor to Apache, followed by Sun Microsystems' Sun Java System Web Server and a host of other applications such as Zeus Web Server.


Template:Unreferenced section The main design goal of Apache is not to be the "fastest" web server, but rather to implement almost all the standards.

As a result, Apache does not have the performances comparable to lighter, dedicated to "high-performances" web servers.

An open-source test<ref>Open-source benchmarks of Apache, Accoria Rock, Microsoft IIS and TrustLeap G-WAN</ref> of Apache with Accoria Rock (the 2008 and 2009 SpecWeb winner), Microsoft IIS and TrustLeap G-WAN illustrated where Apache lags behind the top performers.

However, these raw scalability issues must be reconsidered when Apache is used to generate dynamic contents as other tests have shown that Apache was ranking much better than other Web Application servers in this area<ref>Open-source benchmarks of Apache+PHP, GlassFish+Java, Microsoft IIS+C# and TrustLeap G-WAN+ANSI C</ref>.



The software license under which software from the Apache Foundation is distributed is a distinctive part of the Apache HTTP Server's history and presence in the open source software community. The Apache License allows for the distribution of both open and closed source derivations of the source code.

The Free Software Foundation does not consider the Apache License to be compatible with version 2 of the GNU General Public License (GPL) in that software licensed under the Apache License cannot be integrated with software that is distributed under the GPL:

Template:Quotation However, version 3 of the GPL includes a provision (Section 7e) which allows it to be compatible with licenses that have patent retaliation clauses, including the Apache License.

The name Apache is a registered trademark and may only be used with the trademark holder's express permission.<ref>Template:Cite web</ref>

See also




External links

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